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從日本時代始政紀念日談起
Japanese-era "Dominion Day"

蔡錦堂/Tsai Chin-tang
(淡江大學歷史系副教授)
(Associate Professor, Tamkang University Department of History)

2001-06-18


從1895年至1945年的五十年間,每年的6月17
日在台灣本土境內皆舉行盛大儀式,以紀念
這個日本治台開始的日子,此即始政紀念日
。由始政紀念日所留下來的歷任台灣總督發
表的感言或史料,我們得以知悉當時日本統
治台灣的種種情況;而這個日子正是台灣與
中國分道揚鑣的開始。本週「台灣歷史之窗
」特別邀請淡江大學歷史系副教授蔡錦堂執
筆,針對日本在台統治五十年的施政與其影
響作深入探討。


During the 50-year period from 1895 to 1945, grand
ceremonies were held in Taiwan every June 17 to
commemorate the commencement of Japanese rule over
the island. Based on the June 17 "Dominion Day"
celebratory addresses delivered by successive Japanese
Viceroys to Taiwan together with other historical
documents, we may familiarize ourselves with the
conditions of Japanese rule prevailing during that
colonial era. In addition, this date marks the fork
in the road where Taiwan and China began following
separate paths. This week's Window on Taiwan invites
Associate Prof. Tsai Chin-tang of the Tamkang
University Department of History to make an in-depth
discussion of Japan's half-century rule of Taiwan
and its reverberations.

1895年4月17日馬關條約在日本下關春帆樓簽
訂,根據條約第二款第二、三項,台灣全島
及所有附屬各島嶼、澎湖列島等地方之主權
、所有堡壘軍器工廠與一切屬公物件,永遠
割讓與日本。5月29日,日軍自澳底登陸,6
月3日攻陷基隆後,7日進入台北城,一星期
後日本統治台灣第一任總督樺山資紀海軍大
將亦入城。6月17日舉行庶政開始儀式,當天
上午先於「總督公室」(原布政使司衙門)
集合文武官員舉行「始政公式」。午後於原
巡撫衙門前廣場舉行閱兵分列式,下午三時
在樺山資紀與帶領日軍進入台灣的近衛師團
長能久親王、英國駐淡水領事蒞臨下,舉行
盛大的「始政紀念祝典」。於是,自此日起
,正式開始了日本的台灣統治,迄1945年10
月25日日本將統治權轉交國民政府,統治期
間共達五十年四個月又八天。在此五十年間
,每年6月17日即被稱為「始政紀念日」。

In accordance with Article 2, Sections 2 and 3 of
the Treaty of Shimonoseki, signed at Shun Pan Lo
at Shimonoseki in Japan on April 17, 1895, the
entire island of Taiwan, the Pescadores and other
associated island groups, along with their
fortifications, military materiel, factories and
public facilities, were ceded to Japanese rule in
perpetuity. On May 29, Japanese troops landed at
Aoti and, after putting down resistance in Keelung
on June 3, entered Taipei on June 7. A week later,
Admiral Kabayama Sukenori, the first Japanese
Viceroy to Taiwan, also arrived in Taipei.
Ceremonies for the inauguration of Japanese rule
were held on June 17. In the morning of that day,
civil and military officials first gathered at
the "Office of the Viceroy" (formerly, the
Municipal Government Administrative Yamen) to
conduct a Japanese "dominion inauguration ritual."
After the noon hour of the same day, a military
review was conducted in the plaza in front of the
former Governor's Yamen. At 3:00 in the afternoon,
at the same location, Admiral Kabayama and the
commander of the occupying military force,
Yoshihisa Shinnoh, with the British Counsel
stationed in Tamsui in attendance, conducted a
"Dominion Inauguration Commemoration Ceremony."
Thus was marked the formal beginning of Japanese
rule in Taiwan, which, until the day sovereign
power was handed over to the National Government
on October 25, 1945, lasted for 50 years, 4
months and 8 days. During this 50-year period,
June 17 was known in Taiwan as "Dominion Day."

殖民時期五大節慶之一

在戰前日本的曆書中,列有所謂的「國家祝
祭日」,祝日即新年(一月一日)、紀元節
(日本建國紀念日,二月十一日)、天長節
(當代天皇的生日,如昭和天皇時為四月二
十九日)、明治節(明治天皇的生日,十一
月三日)等所謂「四大節」,在台灣則另加
上6月17日的始政紀念日,成為「五大節」。
這些「祝日」與春秋皇靈祭、台灣神社祭(
十月二十八日)等「祭日」被定為休假日,
又稱為「旗日」(即曆書中印上國旗表示假
日),該天除放假以茲紀念之外,官方亦要
求須張掛國旗、至神社參拜、或舉行儀典等
。屬於「五大節」之一的始政紀念日,可謂
與台灣神社祭同為日本統治台灣「象徵」的
兩大節日。當時初等學校的音樂課程「兒童
唱歌」中,亦編有「始政紀念日」的詞曲,
與日本國歌「君之代」等列為每學年學童教
唱歌曲,高頌日本天皇治世之光輝自此日起
普照台灣全島。


One of five major holidays in the Japanese colonial era

In the Japanese almanac of pre-W.W. II days were listed
the so-called "Four Big Holidays," which included:
* "National Celebration and Oblation Day"
(祝祭日-Shiusaihi), celebrating the New Year (the 1st day
of the 1st month); * "New Era Inauguration Festival,"
(紀元節-Kigensetsu), celebrating the establishment of
the modern-day nation-state of Japan (11th day of the
2nd month); * "Son of Heaven Festival," (天長節-
Tendohsetsu), celebrating the Emperor's birthday (which,
for example, was the 29th day of the 4th month during
the Showa Reign Period); and * "Meiji Festival,"
(明治節-Meijusetsu) celebrating the birthday of Emperor
Mutsuhito of the Meiji Reign Period (3rd day of the 11th
month).
To these four holidays, a fifth - Dominion Day - was
added in Taiwan, which together constituted the "Five
Big Holidays." These five days, categorized as
"celebratory days," combined with "oblation days" such
as for "i""Oblation to the Spirit of the Spring and
Autumn Emperor's,"( 春秋皇靈祭-Shun Ka Koa Rei Ki)
"Taiwan Shinto Oblation," etc. were rest days, also
known as "flag days," and marked on the almanac with
the Japanese national flag. On said days, besides
taking the day off to commemorate this or that occasion,
the Taiwanese people were required by the Japanese
authorities to display the Japanese national flag
and to perform Shinto religious rituals and other
ceremonies. Of the Five Big Holidays, Dominion Day
together with Taiwan Shinto Oblation Day may be
considered as the two major holidays symbolizing
Japanese dominion over Taiwan. During Taiwan's Japanese
colonial era, the "children's vocal music" part of the
primary school curriculum for included mandatory
teaching of the lyrics to the song Dominion Day, which
proclaimed that the effulgence of the Japanese Son of
Heaven's dominion over the world had from that day
forward commenced to illumine the whole of Taiwan,
in addition to which they were required to learn the
Japanese national anthem, Kimigayo (君之代 -Age of
the Noble Ruler).

殖民地的命運正式確定

日本取得台灣成為其殖民地是有其緣由的。
十九世紀中葉,以英國為首的西方國家挾其
強大武力再度到東方來,一向為東方之首的
中國在鴉片戰爭中落敗,鎖國中的日本在強
權壓境下,亦只得開國並開港通商。明治維
新後,日本新政府在此十九世紀弱肉強食的
國際環境下,乃力圖上進,學習西方國家,
進行富國強兵、殖產興業、文明開化等措施
。經過近三十年的銳意圖治,明治政府終於
打敗了同採維新之策但成果有限的大清帝國
,取得了台灣。

Taiwan's status as "colony" formally confirmed

Japan's taking possession of Taiwan as its colony had
its earlier historical roots. During the mid 19th
century, Western countries, with Britain at their
forefront, repeatedly flexed their military muscles
in East Asia, as the consequence of which China, the
theretofore-paramount power in East Asian was defeated
in the Opium War, and the once-closed country of
Japan, under the coercion of brute force, had no
choice but to open its doors to the West, entailing
the opening of various ports to Western trade.
Following the inception of the Meiji Reformation,
in response to this 19th century phenomenon of
ravenous vitimization of weak nations by strong ones,
Japan did all in its power to learn from Western
countries, implementing various programs designed
to enrich the country and bolster its military might,
to promote economic production and develop commercial
enterprise, and to "advance civilization." Over the
course of nearly 30 years of sharp-witted political
scheming, the Meiji government finally defeated the
Ch'ing Empire, which had similarly embarked on
reformation but with lamentably limited efficacy,
taking Taiwan as its prize.

在當時,朝資本主義發展並擁有殖民地乃是
位居強國的要件。日本在取得台灣後,對於
台灣是否要如同維新後始納入版圖的北海道
、琉球一般視同「內地」的一部分,或者當
作殖民地看待,曾有一番爭議。1905年,當
時的日本首相桂太郎於第二十一回帝國議會
中就國會議員質詢台灣之地位的問題時,直
言「當然是殖民地,並不視同內地考慮」,
台灣「殖民地」的命運就此正式確定。

In that era, economic development along capitalist
lines and possession of colonies were the prerequisites
for being ranked among the world's national superpowers.
Initially, there was controversy in Japan as to whether
Taiwan was to be treated as an integral part of the
Japanese nation-state's territory - as had been the
fate of Hokaido and the Ryukyu Islands [Okinawa] in
the early phase of the Meiji Reformation - or as a
colony. In 1905, the prime minister at the time,
Katsura Taroh (桂太郎), responding to an inquiry
during the 21st Session of the Imperial National
Assembly, stated matter-of-factly, "Of course, it's
a colony, and it certainly can't be viewed as
national territory." Thus was Taiwan's status as a
"colony" formally affirmed.

為施行「資本主義」而鋪路

但在建構殖民地台灣的過程中,第四任總督
兒玉源太郎與其民政長官後籐新平統治台灣
的政策則不能不去注意。自1898年以迄1906
年的總督兒玉、民政長官後籐組合搭檔時代
,奠定了日本統治台灣的基礎。在他們的統
治政策中,除了弭平抗日勢力、進行舊慣調
查、籠絡台灣仕紳、推行專賣制度,也實施
土地調查,整備交通網路,充實衛生設備,
振興以製糖為主的產業。而這一連串的措施
,均在為欲於台灣施行「資本主義」而鋪路
,因此如三井、鈴木等日本系統的資本大量
進入台灣,以製糖業為始,再擴充至其他如
礦業、農林畜牧等方面的產業。

Paving the road to capitalism

In the process of establishing a colonial Taiwan,
however, one must not overlook the key policy-making
roles of the 4th Japanese Viceroy to Taiwan, Kodama
Gentaroh and Civil Governnor Gotoh Shinpei. It was
during the period of these two men's collaboration,
from 1898 to 1906, that the foundation of Japanese
rule over Taiwan was established. Apart from
suppressing resistance to Japanese rule, conducting
surveys of indigenous customs, enlisting the support
of Taiwan's gentry, and instituting a government-run
commodity monopoly system, their programs for
governing Taiwan included land surveys, transportation
network planning, augmentation of public hygiene
facilities, and the promotion of various industries,
which took sugar production as its earliest priority.
This entire series of measures, moreover, was aimed
at paving the way to the development of a capitalist
economy in Taiwan. Consequently, massive capital
investments by the likes of the Mitsui and Suzuki
conglomerates were funneled into Taiwan, at first
to engage in sugar refining, later to gradually
expand their scopes of operation to mining, farming,
forestry, and animal husbandry.

在資本主義化的過程中,台灣硬體方面的建
設比起清朝統治時期確實有非常大的進步。
譬如從街市改建、下水道此一攸關衛生而經
常為人忽視的設施之舖設即得到很大的改善
。以嘉義朴子之近海街市為例,朴子為鼠疫
高流行區,疫情非常嚴重,但在防疫、清潔
、捕鼠,以及舖設上、下水道、拆除舊街屋
、改建新市區等等措施多管齊下之後,鼠疫
傳染終告偃息。

During the process of Taiwan's capitalistic evolution,
its physical infrastructure became considerably more
advanced than that of Ch'ing Dynasty China during the
T'ung Chih Reign Period. Quite dramatic progress was
achieved, for instance, as the consequence of such
public works projects as municipal renewal and laying
of sewer systems - matters of such critical importance
to public hygiene yet so universally disregarded by
the Chinese Empire of that era. Taking, as an example,
the seaside town of Putzu in Chiayi County, it had
previously been a region in which severe outbreaks
of bubonic plague epidemics had commonly occurred.
Bubonic plague epidemics finally came to an end there
as the result of preventive measures such as public
sanitation, rodent extermination, construction of
ground-level and underground sewage systems, razing
of dilapidated buildings, development of newly
planned municipal areas, etc.

教育與政治參與上的差別待遇

但是台灣畢竟是「殖民地」,在資本主義發
展的過程中,硬體建設或有長足進步,軟體
建設方面台、日人間卻存在著明顯的差別待
遇。「一視同仁」、「民族融合」、「同化
主義」雖是統治者一向標榜的口號,但只落
於「愚民化的看板」,台灣人未能獲得實質
的文明開化與文化啟蒙,在教育以及參政權
等方面,台、日人所能享有的落差極大。因
而如台人所企盼的自治機構「台灣議會」的
設置,雖經由十多年的努力請願,終究無從
實現。

Educational and political inequities

Still, Taiwan was, after all, a mere colony. Despite
the fact that during Taiwan's capitalistic evolution
infrastructural hardware construction projects may
have contributed to its progress, in terms of its
social software construction, there nevertheless
persisted glaring inequities of treatment accorded
to native Taiwanese versus Japanese nationals. While
the Japanese colonial authorities forever trumpeted
such slogans as "everyone treated alike," "ethnic
coalescence," and "assimilationism," such verbiage
degenerated into a mere palliative for dulling the
populace's minds, and the Taiwan people were never
able to achieve substantive civilizational advancement
or cultural enlightenment.

戰爭末期一連串「去殖民地化」政策的施行

1937年後因戰爭的爆發,日本政府企求殖民
地人民的人力物力支援,開始改變此種差別
待遇。戰爭後期的1940年准許台灣人民取日
本姓名,1941年廢除台、日人公小學校差別
,1943年開始實施初等教育「義務制」,19
44年公佈「兵役法」,隔年實施徵兵制度,
1945年眾議院選舉法亦於台灣施行(但因戰
爭結束,未能真正實現)。此一連串措施,
是日本政府欲將台灣「去殖民地化」的表徵
,也是「戰爭」因素導致的結果,只是時間
上已接近戰爭末期。

War-era abandonment of colonial policies

In the aftermath of the eruption of war in East Asian
in 1937, the Japanese colonial authorities began
taking steps to redress these injustices, in hopes
of thereby enlisting the manpower and material
support of its colonial subjects: In 1940, they
began permitting Taiwanese to adopt Japanese nam3s;
in 1941, they ended the legal segregation of primary
schools for children of Taiwanese and Japanese
ancestry; in 1943, they instituted the compulsory
primary education; in 1944, they enacted the
Military Conscription Law, and implemented a
military draft system in the following year; and
in 1945 a Popular Legislature Election Law was
enacted, though the war's end short-circuited its
implementation. This series of measures demonstrated
a Japanese policy of decolonialization impelled by
wartime exigencies, which, however, came to no effect,
as they came too late in the game of W.W. II.

自1895年6月17日的始政式舉行以來,日本統
治台灣五十年餘,有光也有影,但它也是造
成台灣與中國分道揚鑣的開始。

The 50 years of Japan's colonial rule over Taiwan had
its bright side and its dark side. Regardless, it was
watershed during which Taiwan and China began going
their separate ways.

Compiled and edited by Tina Lee/Translated by James Decker
編輯李美儀/英文翻譯曹篤明
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