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史詩未成‧唯待後續:十二年前鄭南榕的那把火
An epic poem not yet finished:
Twelve years after Cheng Nan-jung's self-immolation


胡慧玲/Hu Hui-lin
(陳文成博士紀念基金會總幹事)
(Secretary General, Dr. Chen Wen-chen Memorial Foundation)

2001-04-16


Cheng Nan-jung founded Freedom Era Weekly
in 1984. It was banned countless times,
but still managed to come out each week.

「鄭南榕的自焚事件,是台灣政治運動的
分水嶺。」國策顧問姚嘉文如是說。在言
論封閉的一九八○年代裡,鄭南榕創辦了
《自由時代週刊》,並結合運動以密集攻
勢突破官方四大禁忌:蔣家神話、軍方弊
端、二二八、台灣獨立;而他的死,更使
台灣的政治運動由國會體制改革的層次躍
入國家認同的層次。四月七日是鄭南榕逝
世十二年紀念日,因此本週特別邀請陳文
成博士紀念基金會總幹事胡慧玲(前《自
由時代週刊》主編)執筆,談談這位台灣
政治史上,先知先覺的行動家。

"The Cheng Nan-jung self-immolation incident
is a watershed in Taiwan's political movement."
So says National Policy Advisor Yao Chia-wen.
In the 1980s, when expression of political
views was banned, Cheng Nan-jung founded the
Freedom Era Weekly, and combined activism with
a highly-concentrated attack to break the four
great taboos of the authorities: the myth of
the Chiang family, military abuses, the 228
Incident and Taiwan Independence. His death
pushed Taiwan's political movements from the
level of parliamentary reform to a new level
of national identification. Because April 7 is
the twelfth anniversary of Cheng Nan-jung's
death, this week we have invited Hu Hui-lin,
secretary general of the Dr. Chen Wen-chen
Memorial Foundation, and former editor of Freedom
Era Weekly, to write about this prescient
activist from Taiwan's political history.

以血肉之軀燃燒民主自由之火

1989年4月7日,自由時代週刊總編輯鄭南
榕自囚的第71天。上午八點多,國民黨重
兵包圍雜誌社,破門而入之際,鄭南榕轉
身走進總編輯室,反鎖房門,引火自焚。
那把果決的柴火,那道猛然的火勢,燒出
了台灣近世紀來前所未有的局面,譜下了
波瀾壯闊的史詩。

A fire of freedom and democracy kindled with flesh
and blood

April 7 1989 was the 71st day of self-imprisonment
for Freedom Era Weekly's editor-in-chief, Cheng
Nan-jung. Some time after 8 a.m., large numbers
of KMT troops surrounded the magazine's office,
broke down the door and entered. Cheng Nan-jung
turned around and went into the editor-in-chief's
office, locked the door behind him, and set himself
on fire. That firm and resolute matchstick, that
sudden burst of flames created a situation unknown
in recent Taiwanese history, and composed an epic
poem on a vast scale.

言論封閉的時代裡,主張台獨的外省第二代

鄭南榕,父親來自中國福州,母親係基隆人
。通稱「外省人第二代」的他,1947年9月
12日出生於台北市漢口街,差點未出生就成
了二二八事件的冤魂。台灣近代史上最慘烈
的大屠殺,娘胎裡為他烙了印記,也標識了
他人生的方向。

In the days when expression of political views
was banned, he was a second-generation mainlander
who advocated Taiwan Independence

Cheng Nan-jung's father came from Fuzhou in China,
his mother was from Keelung. Known as a "second
generation mainlander," he was born in Hankou
Street in Taipei on September 12, 1947, before
he was born, he almost became one of the "unlucky
ghosts." The most disastrous massacre in Taiwan's
recent history branded its stamp on him as he lay
in his mother's womb, and marked the direction his
life was to take.

日後鄭南榕在他第一份求職履歷表上寫著
:「我出生在二二八事件那一年,那事件
帶給我終生的困擾。…我們是在鄰居的保
護下,才在台灣人對外省人的報復浪潮裡
,免於受害。」他自幼思索此問題至成年
,白色恐怖時代主動記錄於自己的人生公
文書,後來因之參與政治,鼓動風潮,追
求言論自由,公開主張台灣獨立,並不惜
以身殉之。

Later, on his first job-seeking resume, Cheng
Nan-jung was to write: "I was born the year of
the 228 Incident, and this incident has tormented
me throughout my life...Only because we were
protected by our neighbors were we mainlanders
safe from the wave of retaliation from the
Taiwanese." From childhood he thought deeply
about this question, and he freely recorded the
period of White Terror in the documents he wrote
about his life. Later on, because of this
experience, he became involved in politics,
stirred up agitation and sought freedom of speech,
became an open advocate of Taiwan Independence,
and thought nothing of dying for his beliefs.

鄭南榕畢業於宜蘭初中、建國中學;先後
就學於成功大學工學院、輔仁大學哲學系
、台大哲學系,自詡「我是第一流的行動
思想家,為什麼要做第三流的工程師?」
拒修國父思想課程,也放棄了台大畢業証
書。他說:「我是個一流主義者,對人生
的不清不楚,深覺痛苦。」

Cheng Nan-jung graduated from Ilan Middle School and
Chien Kuo High School. He enrolled successively at
National Cheng Kung University's college of engineering,
Fu Jen Catholic University's philosophy department and
National Taiwan University's philosophy department. He
boasted that he was "a first-rate activist thinker, so
why should I be a third-rate engineer?" He refused to
take the classes on Sun Yat-sen Thought, and handed
back his Taiwan University graduation certificate. He
said "I'm a first-rate-ist, I don't understand life,
and I find this very hard indeed."

離開台大校園的他,自覺是個煥然一新的
人,他說:「我強烈感受到台灣不公不義
的現象,也明確下了堅持本土化思想的決
心。」

After leaving Taiwan University, he became aware
that he had become a completely new person. He
said "I was profoundly affected by the phenomenon
of injustice in Taiwan, and I made an unequivocal
resolution to be true to the ideas of
Taiwanization.

1972年2月,鄭南榕與輔大同學葉菊蘭結婚
,10月退伍,進入商場。他一心一意想辦雜
誌,他說:「像我這種思想訓練深厚的人,
辦雜誌是實踐信仰最適當的方式。」

In February 1972, Cheng Nan-jung married Yeh
Chu-lan, who had been a fellow student at Fu
Jen. He was demobbed in October that year,
and went into business. He was bent on
producing a magazine, and he said: "For a
deep and disciplined a thinker like me,
producing a magazine is the best way to put
my beliefs into practice."

結合雜誌與運動兩大戰場,突破官方四大
禁忌

1984年3 月,他創辦《自由時代週刊》,
標榜「爭取百分之百的言論自由」。鄭南
榕登記了18張雜誌執照,做為被國民黨查
禁、停刊時的備胎;他說:「被抓、被殺
都不怕,簡而言之,一路奮鬥到底。」清
清楚楚的方法和目標,他實踐到生命的最
後一刻。

Combining the two battlefields of journalism and
activism, and breaking the four great taboos of
the authorities

In March 1984, he founded Freedom Era Weekly, and
boasted that "[it was] fighting for 100 percent
freedom of speech." Cheng Nan-jung registered 18
different magazine licenses, as "spare tires" for
use when the KMT banned the magazine and suspended
publication. He said "I'm not scared of arrest nor
of being killed, basically, I'll fight them to the
very end."

Cheng Nan-jung set himself on fire in
the magazine's office. His wife, Yeh
Chu-lan, covers his remains with a flag.

自由時代系列週刊辦了5 年8 個月,出版
302 期,直到他死後半年才結束。其間,
1984年年底,江南命案發生後,雜誌轉載
《蔣經國傳》,多次公開蔣經國的病情,
揭發軍方黑幕和弊端,打破蔣家神化權威
,壓制軍人干政之氣勢,因之創下被查禁
和停刊數最多的記錄。1986年6月2日,鄭
南榕被羅織入罪,未判刑先逮捕,罪名是
「違反選罷法」,實則是鄭南榕在爭取言
論自由之外,繼之以發起街頭運動,向政
治禁忌宣戰。

Freedom Era Weekly ran for five years and eight
months, and 302 issues. It only folded six months
after Cheng's death. During that time, at the end
of 1984, after the Henry Liu murder, the magazine
printed Liu's Biography of Chiang Ching-kuo, made
public Chiang Ching Kuo's medical condition on
many occasions, exposed the shady dealings and
abuses of the military, broke through the deified
authority of the Chiang family and put pressure on
the interference of the military in politics. As
a result, the magazine was suppressed and
publication suspended a record-breaking number of
times. On June 2, 1986, Cheng Nan-jung was framed,
and arrested without sentence. His crime was
"violating the Public Officials Election and Recall
Law," but actually, apart from fighting for freedom
of speech, Cheng was continually declaring war on
political taboos with his organization of street
activism.

1986年,他鼓吹黨外組黨,率先加入在美
國成立的台灣民主黨,成為島內第一號黨
員;隨後發起519 綠色行動,抗議長達39
年的戒嚴統治年,他被捕後,雜誌社如常
運作,定期出刊;隔年1 月24日出獄,他
未曾停止他的腳步,彷彿自知活著的歲月
所餘不多。出獄後第一天,也就是二二八
事件四十週年屆臨前,他向台灣最深沈的
政治禁忌挑戰,邀集陳永興、李勝雄等人
,於2月4日創辦228 和平日促進會,在全
台各地遊行演講,要求查明真相,平反冤
屈,與族群和解。

In 1986, he agitated for the organizations of
political parties outside the KMT, and was among
the first to join in the establishment of the
Taiwan Democracy Party in the U.S., and became
the first party member on the island. Soon after
he started the 519 Green Movement. On January 24,
1987, he was released, and he never let up for a
moment, it was as if he knew that he didn't have
much time left. The first day after he left prison,
just before the 40th anniversary of the 228
Incident, he challenged Taiwan's most deeply-held
political taboo, and invited people including Chen
Yung-hsing and Lee Sheng-hsiung [Stephen Lee] to a
meeting on February 4 to found the 228 Peace Day
Association. They held demonstrations and gave
speeches all over Taiwan, demanding an investigation
to find out the truth, redress of injustice, and
reconciliation among the different ethnic groups.

4 月16日,在演講會上,鄭南榕向另一個
絕對的政治禁忌挑戰,他說:「我是鄭南
榕,我主張台灣獨立。」他以身為國民黨
統治下第一個公然鼓吹台灣獨立之人而自
傲。一次又一次,在每一個公開演講場合
,在萬千群眾面前,他總是以這句話當開
場白:「我是一個外省囝仔,我主張台灣
獨立。」

On April 16, at a speaker meeting, Cheng Nan-jung
challenged another absolute political taboo. He
said "I am Cheng Nan-jug and I advocate Taiwan
Independence." He was the first person to publicly
come forward and proudly advocate Taiwan
Independence. Again and again, on every public
speaking occasion, before crowds of thousands, he
would repeat this sentence and declare openly and
publicly: "I am the 'gin-ah' [Taiwanese for
'child'] of a mainlander, and I advocate Taiwan
Independence."

1987年9 月起,他策劃「蔡許台獨案聲
援活動」,繼之推動「新國家運動」,
全台行軍40天。1988年7 月,他赴美國
和日本,首度結識海外獨立運動份子,
取得許世楷的〈台灣共和國憲法草案〉
,返台後,隨即在雜誌第254 期刊登全
文。為此,1989年1 月21日,高檢處發
出「鄭南榕涉嫌叛亂」的第一張傳票。
1 月27日,他公開宣稱:「國民黨只能
抓到我的屍體,不能抓到我的人。」

Starting in September 1987, he made plans for
"Activities to express support for the Tsai-Hsu
Taiwan Independence Case," and continued to
promote the "New Nation Movement," a march around
the whole of Taiwan that would last for 40 days.
He acquired Hsu Shih-kai's "Draft for a Taiwan
Republic Constitution", and after his return to
Taiwan, published the entire text in issue no. 254
of the magazine. It was for this reason that the
Public Prosecutor's Office of the Taiwan High Court
issued preliminary summons for "Cheng Nan-jung
being under suspicious of sedition" on January 21,
1989. On January 27, he made a public declaration:
"The KMT will only take my body, they will never
take me alive."

殉道者的骨灰成為民主與希望的種子

他再也沒有踏出室外一步,再也沒有曬
過太陽,拂過春風。自囚期間,他曾以
一篇訪問稿〈獨立,是台灣的唯一活路
──鄭南榕談台灣新憲法涉嫌叛亂案〉
明志,編按首句引聖經「他不是那光,
乃是要為光做見証。那光是真光,照亮
一切世上的人。」鄭南榕已準備殉道。

The ashes of one who laid down his life for his
principles become the seeds of democracy and hope
He never again set foot outside his office. He
never again felt the sun on his face, or the touch
of the spring breezes. During his period of
self-confinement, he gave an interview, entitled
"Independence is the only way out for Taiwan -- Chen
Nan-jung talks about a new constitution for Taiwan
and is under suspicion of sedition," and quoted from
the Bible: "He was not that Light, but was sent to
bear witness of that Light. That was the true Light,
which lighteth every man that cometh into the world."
Cheng Nan-jung was already prepared to die for the
cause.

Cheng Nan-jung launches the 40-day march
around the island by the New Nation
Movement, 1988.

1989年4月7日清晨,國民黨重兵壓境、強
行攻打雜誌社,鄭南榕以一把火,和全焦
的屍體,向世人証實他高潔的靈魂,向世
人表達他對這片土地的愛戀。

In the early hours of April 7, 1989, large numbers
of KMT troops surrounded the area and made an
attack by force on the magazine offices. Cheng
Nan-jung set himself on fire, and with his charred
remains he made his noble and virtuous soul witness
to the people of the world, and showed them his
love for this land.

5 月19日,這個鄭南榕所發動的第一個政
治運動的紀念日,四、五萬人冒著微雨,
參加出殯式。綿延數公里的行列,從中山
南路右轉凱達格蘭大道時,受阻於公園路
前的鐵絲蛇籠和憲警封鎖線。詹益樺飛奔
前往,自焚於鐵絲網上。

On May 19, the first memorial day for the political
movement started by Cheng Nan-jung, 40 to 50,000
people braved light rain to attend his funeral
procession. The parade stretched for several
kilometers, and when it turned right from Chungshan
South Road into Ketegelan Boulevard, it was blocked
in front of Kungyuan Road by steel wire barricades
and a military police cordon. Chan Yi-hua dashed
forward and set himself on fire in front of the
wire barriers.

1989年4月7日之後,海外黑名單人士紛紛
闖關回台,帶動此後兩年的返鄉熱潮,並
開啟以台灣為主體的獨立運動;人民力量
興起,呈現於三月學運和反軍人干政,以
及日後的100 行動聯盟和廢除刑一百條…
。1990年4月7日,鄭南榕的骨灰以氣球昇
空,遍灑各地。

After April 7, 1989, the figures on the blacklist
who had gone overseas came back to Taiwan in
droves, bringing a tide of returnees over the next
two years, and opened up the independence movement
which took Taiwan as its subject. People power
took off, and manifested itself in movements such
as the March students' movement and the activism
against military interference in politics, and
later on in the Action 100 Alliance to get rid of
Article 100... On April 7, 1990, Cheng Nan-jung's
ashes were scattered by balloon.

愛比死更堅強--遺孀葉菊蘭在民主之
路上繼續奮鬥

葉菊蘭於鄭南榕過世之後,棄商從政,
四度當選立法委員,2000年5 月20日,
新政府成立後,並出任交通部長。她始
終認為鄭南榕是公共財,因此於事件十
年後捐出雜誌社房產和捐款,組成鄭南
榕基金會,將此公共財永續滋息。

Love is stronger than death - his widow, Yeh
Chu-lan, continues the battle on the road to
democracy

After Cheng Nan-jung's death, Yeh Chu-lan
abandoned business for politics, and served
four terms as legislator. On May 20, 2000,
when the new government was set up, she took
up the post of Minister of Transportation and
Communications. All along, she has taken the
view that Cheng Nan-jung is public property,
and consequently, 10 years after the incident,
she donated the magazine's offices and also
donated funds to set up the Cheng Liberty
Foundation so that this "public property" can
continue in perpetuity.

位於台北市中山國中旁幽靜巷內的鄭南
榕紀念會館,是1984年3 月《自由時代
週刊》創辦之地,也是1989年4月7日鄭
南榕自焚之處。鄭南榕的生與死,在台
灣播下自由的種籽。鄭南榕基金會舉辦
中的「自由之路電影欣賞會」、規劃中
的鄭南榕自由獎、讀書會,也是以「自
由」為中心的思想和實踐。

Situated in a quiet and peaceful lane near to
Chung Shan Middle School in Taipei City, this is
the place where Freedom Era Weekly was founded in
March 1984, and also the place where Cheng Nan-jung
set himself on fire on April 7, 1989. Cheng, in
both life and death, sowed the seeds of freedom in
Taiwan. The Cheng Liberty Foundation is organizing
a "Freedom Road Film Festival," and has plans for
a Cheng Nan-jung Liberty Prize, a study group, and
takes liberal thought and liberty in practice as
its core.

共同續寫哲學家未完成的民主建國史詩

鄭南榕雖是「外省人第二代」,卻始終
認定台灣為家鄉。他說:「我們是小國
小民,但我們是好國好民。」他曾於筆
記本上寫著:「當哲學家被處死之時,
山河都將流淚。」彷彿預示了身後的景
象。然史詩未成,唯待後續。

Coming together to finish the epic poem of a
democratic country which the philosopher left
unfinished

Although Cheng Nan-jung was a "second-generation
mainlander," he always took it for granted that Taiwan
was his homeland. He said: "We are a small people in a
small country, but we are a good people, and in a good
country." In his notebook, he once wrote: "When a
philosopher is put to death, the mountains and the rivers
all shed tears." It's as if he had an intuition of what
would become of him. The epic poem is not yet finished,
it just awaits completion.

Edited by Tina Lee/ translated by Elizabeth Hoile
(李美儀編輯/何麗薩翻譯)
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